SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER
PURSUANT TO RULE 13A-16 OR 15D-16 UNDER
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the month of June 2023
Commission File Number: 001-40010
(Translation of registrant’s name into English)
Emmy Noetherweg 2
2333 BK Leiden
(Address of principal executive office)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover of Form 20-F or Form 40-F.
Form 20-F ☒ Form 40-F ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1): ☐
Note: Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1) only permits the submission in paper of a Form 6-K if submitted solely to provide an attached annual report to security holders.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7): ☐
Note: Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7) only permits the submission in paper of a Form 6-K if submitted to furnish a report or other document that the registrant foreign private issuer must furnish and make public under the laws of the jurisdiction in which the registrant is incorporated, domiciled or legally organized (the registrant’s “home country”), or under the rules of the home country exchange on which the registrant’s securities are traded, as long as the report or other document is not a press release, is not required to be and has not been distributed to the registrant’s security holders, and, if discussing a material event, has already been the subject of a Form 6-K submission or other Commission filing on EDGAR.
Pharvaris N.V. (the “Company”) is filing this Report on Form 6-K for the sole purpose of updating and supplementing its disclosure regarding material United States federal income tax and Dutch tax considerations of owning and disposing of ordinary shares of the Company. The updated disclosure, which is attached hereto as Exhibit 99.1 and incorporated herein by reference, updates and supplements the Company’s prior disclosures, including those discussed under the heading Item 10.E. “Taxation” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 5, 2023. The information included in this Form 6-K (including Exhibit 99.1) is hereby incorporated by reference into the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3 (File No. 333- 263198) and the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (File No. 333-252897).
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Date: June 27, 2023
/s/ Berndt Modig
Chief Executive Officer
MATERIAL UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX AND DUTCH TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The information presented under the caption “—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders” below is a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax consequences to a U.S. Holder (as defined below) of owning and disposing of our ordinary shares. The information presented under the caption “—Material Dutch Tax Considerations” is a discussion of the material Dutch tax consequences of owning and disposing of our ordinary shares.
You should consult your tax adviser regarding the applicable tax consequences to you of investing in our ordinary shares under the laws of the United States (federal, state and local), the Netherlands, and any other applicable jurisdiction.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders
The following is a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to the U.S. Holders, as defined below, of owning and disposing of our ordinary shares. It does not describe all tax consequences that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to acquire or dispose of our ordinary shares. This discussion applies only to a U.S. Holder that holds our ordinary shares as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and this discussion applies only to such ordinary shares. This discussion is general in nature and it does not describe all of the U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant in light of the U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, including the potential application of the Medicare contribution tax, estate or gift tax consequences, any tax consequences other than U.S. federal income tax consequences, and tax consequences applicable to U.S. Holders subject to special rules, such as:
If an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds ordinary shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partner and the partnership. Partnerships holding ordinary shares and partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisers as to the particular U.S. federal income tax consequences of owning and disposing of ordinary shares.
This discussion is based on the Code, administrative pronouncements, judicial decisions, final, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations, and the income tax treaty between the Netherlands and the United States, or the Treaty, all as of the date hereof, any of which is subject to change or differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below. We have not sought, and do not expect to seek, any ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the Service, with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the Service or a court would agree with our statements and conclusions or that a court would not sustain any challenge by the Service in the event of litigation.
A “U.S. Holder” is a holder who, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is a beneficial owner of ordinary shares, who is eligible for the benefits of the Treaty and who is:
THIS SUMMARY IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY, AND IS NOT INTENDED TO BE, AND SHOULD NOT BE CONSTRUED TO BE, LEGAL OR TAX ADVICE TO ANY PARTICULAR HOLDER. INVESTORS ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISERS WITH REGARD TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS, AS WELL AS THE APPLICATION OF U.S. NON-INCOME TAX LAWS AND THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. JURISDICTION, IN LIGHT OF THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATION.
Taxation of Distributions
As discussed above under “Dividends and dividend policy”, we do not expect to make distributions on our ordinary shares in the near future. In the event that we do make distributions of cash or other property, subject to the PFIC rules described below, distributions paid on our ordinary shares will generally be treated as dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Because we do not maintain calculations of our earnings and profits under U.S. federal income tax principles, we expect that distributions generally will be reported to U.S. Holders as dividends. If and for so long as our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq or another established securities market in the United States or if and for so long as we are eligible for benefits under the Treaty, dividends paid to certain non-corporate U.S. Holders may be eligible for taxation as “qualified dividend income” if we are not treated as a PFIC with respect to the U.S. Holder and were not treated as a PFIC with respect to the U.S. Holder in the preceding taxable year, and if certain other requirements are met. Therefore, subject to applicable limitations, dividends paid to certain non-corporate U.S. Holders may be taxable at rates not in excess of the long-term capital gain rate applicable to such U.S. Holders. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the availability of the reduced tax rate on dividends in their particular circumstances. The amount of a dividend will include any amounts withheld by us in respect of Dutch income taxes. Subject to the PFIC rules described below, the amount of the dividend will be treated as foreign-source dividend income to U.S. Holders and will generally not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally available to U.S. corporations under the United States Internal Revenue Code.
Subject to the PFIC rules described below, dividends will be included in a U.S. Holder’s income on the date of the U.S. Holder’s receipt of the dividend. The amount of any dividend income paid in euros will be the U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of actual or constructive receipt, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars at that time. If the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder should not be required to recognize foreign currency gain or loss in respect of the dividend income. A U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss if the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars after the date of receipt.
Subject to applicable limitations, some of which vary depending upon the U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, Dutch income taxes withheld from dividends on our ordinary shares at a rate not exceeding the rate provided by the Treaty will be creditable against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. Dutch taxes withheld in excess of the rate applicable under the Treaty will not be eligible for credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. The rules governing foreign tax credits are complex, and U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the creditability of foreign taxes in their particular circumstances. In lieu of claiming a foreign tax credit, U.S. Holders may, at their election, deduct foreign taxes, including any Dutch income tax, in computing their taxable income, subject to generally applicable limitations under U.S. law. An election to deduct foreign taxes instead of claiming foreign tax credits applies to all foreign taxes paid or accrued in the taxable year.
Sale or Other Disposition of Ordinary Shares
Subject to the PFIC rules described below, gain or loss realized on the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder held the ordinary shares for more than one year. The amount of the gain or loss will equal the difference between the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the ordinary shares disposed of and the amount realized on the disposition, in each case as determined in U.S. dollars. This gain or loss will generally be U.S.-source gain or loss for foreign tax credit purposes. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to various limitations.
Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules
Under the Code, we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which, after the application of certain “look- through” rules with respect to subsidiaries, either (i) 75% or more of our gross income consists of “passive income,” or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets consist of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, “passive income.” For purposes of the above calculations, we will be treated as if we hold our proportionate share of the assets of, and receive directly our proportionate share of the income of, any other corporation in which we directly or indirectly own at least 25%, by value, of the shares of such corporation. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, rents, certain non-active royalties and capital gains. Based on the nature of our business, our financial statements, and our expectations about the nature and amount of our income, assets and activities we do not believe we were a PFIC in 2021 and we do not expect to be a PFIC for our current taxable year or in the foreseeable future. In addition, we may, directly or indirectly, hold equity interests in other PFICs, or Lower-tier PFICs. Whether we or any of our subsidiaries will be a PFIC in 2022 or any future year is a factual determination that must be made annually at the close of each taxable year, and, thus, is subject to significant uncertainty, because among other things, a determination of whether a company is a PFIC must be made annually after the end of each taxable year and will depend on the composition of our income and assets and the market value of our assets from time to time. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC in 2022 or any future taxable year. If we are a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder holds or is deemed to hold ordinary shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to that U.S. Holder for all succeeding years during which the U.S. Holder holds or is deemed to hold ordinary shares, even if we ceased to meet the threshold requirements for PFIC status, unless under certain circumstances the U.S. Holder makes a valid deemed sale or deemed dividend election under the applicable Treasury regulations with respect to its ordinary shares.
Under certain attribution rules, assuming we are a PFIC, U.S. Holders will be deemed to own their proportionate shares of any Lower-tier PFICs and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax according to the rules described in the following paragraphs on (i) certain distributions by a Lower-tier PFIC and (ii) a disposition of shares of a Lower-tier PFIC, in each case as if the U.S. Holder held such shares directly, even if the U.S. Holder has not received the proceeds of those distributions or dispositions.
Generally, if we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder held or is deemed to have held ordinary shares, gain recognized by a U.S. Holder on a sale or other disposition (including certain pledges) of such ordinary shares, or an indirect disposition of shares of a Lower-tier PFIC, would be allocated ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for such ordinary shares. The amounts allocated to the taxable year of the sale or other disposition and to any year before we became a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each other taxable year would be subject to tax at the highest rate in effect for individuals or corporations, as appropriate, for that taxable year, and an interest charge would be imposed on the amount allocated to that taxable year. Further, to the extent that any distribution received by a U.S. Holder with respect to its ordinary shares (or a distribution by a Lower-tier PFIC to its shareholder that is deemed to be received by a U.S. Holder) exceeds 125% of the average of the annual distributions on the ordinary shares received during the preceding three years or the U.S. Holder’s holding period, whichever is shorter, that distribution would be subject to taxation in the same manner as gain, described immediately above.
A U.S. Holder can avoid certain of the adverse rules described above by making a mark-to-market election with respect to its ordinary shares, provided that the ordinary shares are “marketable.” Ordinary shares will be marketable if they are “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange” or other market within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations. If a U.S. Holder makes the mark-to-market election, it generally will recognize as ordinary income any excess of the fair market value of the ordinary shares at the end of each taxable year over their adjusted tax basis, and will recognize an ordinary loss in respect of any excess of the adjusted tax basis of the ordinary shares over their fair market value at the end of the taxable year (but only to the extent of the net amount of income previously included as a result of the mark-to-market election). If a U.S. Holder
makes the election, the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the ordinary shares will be adjusted to reflect the income or loss amounts recognized. Any gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares, as applicable, in a year when we are a PFIC will be treated as ordinary income and any loss will be treated as an ordinary loss (but only to the extent of the net amount of income previously included as a result of the mark-to-market election). A mark-to-market election generally cannot be made for equity interests in any Lower-tier PFIC unless shares of such Lower-tier PFIC are themselves “marketable.” As a result, if a U.S. Holder makes a mark-to-market election with respect to our ordinary shares, the U.S. Holder would nevertheless be subject to the PFIC rules described above with respect to its indirect interest in any Lower-tier PFIC unless the U.S. Holder makes a QEF Election with respect to such Lower-tier PFIC, as discussed below. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the availability and advisability of making a mark-to-market election in their particular circumstances.
In addition, in order to avoid the application of the foregoing rules, a United States person that owns stock in a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes may make a QEF Election with respect to such PFIC, and each PFIC in which the PFIC holds equity interests, if the PFIC provides the information necessary for such election to be made. In order to make such an election, a United States person would be required to make the QEF Election for each PFIC by attaching a separate properly completed IRS Form 8621 for each PFIC to the United States person’s timely filed U.S. federal income tax return generally for the first taxable year that the entity is treated as a PFIC with respect to the United States person. A U.S. Holder generally may make a separate election to defer payment of taxes on the undistributed income inclusion under the QEF rules, but if deferred, any such taxes are subject to an interest charge. If a United States person makes a QEF Election with respect to a PFIC, the United States person will be currently taxable on its pro rata share of the PFIC’s ordinary earnings and net capital gain (at ordinary income and capital gain rates, respectively) for each taxable year that the entity is classified as a PFIC and will not be required to include such amounts in income when actually distributed by the PFIC. There is no assurance that we will provide information necessary for U.S. Holders to make QEF Elections. If a U.S. Holder makes a QEF Election with respect to us, any distributions paid by us out of our earnings and profits that were previously included in the U.S. Holder’s income under the QEF Election will not be taxable to the U.S. Holder. A U.S. Holder will increase its tax basis in its ordinary shares by an amount equal to any income included under the QEF Election and will decrease its tax basis by any amount distributed, if any, on the ordinary shares that is not included in its income. In addition, a U.S. Holder will recognize capital gain or loss on the disposition of ordinary shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized and its adjusted tax basis in our ordinary shares. U.S. Holders should note that if they make QEF Elections with respect to us and Lower-tier PFICs, if any, they may be required to pay U.S. federal income tax with respect to their ordinary shares for any taxable year significantly in excess of any cash distributions, if any, received on the ordinary shares, as applicable, for such taxable year. If we determine that any of our subsidiaries is a Lower-tier PFIC for any taxable year, there is no assurance that we will provide information necessary for U.S. Holders to make a QEF Election with respect to such Lower-tier PFIC. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding making QEF Elections in their particular circumstances.
In addition, if we were a PFIC or, with respect to a particular U.S. Holder, were treated as a PFIC for the taxable year in which we paid a dividend or for the prior taxable year, the preferential dividend rates discussed above with respect to dividends paid to certain non-corporate U.S. Holders would not apply.
If a U.S. Holder owns ordinary shares during any year in which we are a PFIC, the U.S. Holder generally must file annual reports, containing such information as the U.S. Treasury may require on IRS Form 8621 (or any successor form) with respect to us, generally with the U.S. Holder’s federal income tax return for that year, unless otherwise specified in the instructions with respect to such form.
U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers concerning our potential PFIC status and the potential application of the PFIC rules. The U.S. federal income tax rules relating to PFICs are very complex. U.S. Holders are strongly urged to consult their tax advisers with respect to the impact of PFIC status on the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares, as applicable, the consequences to them of an investment in a PFIC (and any Lower-tier PFICs), any elections available with respect to the ordinary shares and the IRS information reporting obligations with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of ordinary shares of a PFIC.
Information Reporting With respect to Foreign Financial Assets
Payments of dividends and sales proceeds that are made within the United States or through certain U.S.- related financial intermediaries generally are subject to information reporting, and may be subject to backup
withholding, unless (i) the U.S. Holder is a corporation or other exempt recipient or (ii) in the case of backup withholding, the U.S. Holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number and certifies that it is not subject to backup withholding.
The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a U.S. Holder will be allowed as a credit against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle it to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
Certain U.S. Holders who are individuals and certain entities may be required to report information relating to an interest in our ordinary shares, subject to certain exceptions (including an exception for ordinary shares held in accounts maintained by certain U.S. financial institutions). U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding whether or not they are obligated to report information relating to their ownership and disposition of ordinary shares.
Material Dutch Tax Considerations
Scope of Discussion
This section only outlines certain material Dutch tax consequences of the acquisition, holding and disposal of our ordinary shares. This section does not purport to describe all possible tax considerations or consequences that may be relevant to a holder or prospective holder of our ordinary shares and does not purport to deal with the tax consequences applicable to all categories of investors, some of which (such as trusts or similar arrangements) may be subject to special rules. In view of its general nature, this section should be treated with corresponding caution.
This section is based on the tax laws of the Netherlands, published regulations thereunder and published authoritative case law, all as in effect on the date hereof, including, for the avoidance of doubt, the tax rates applicable on the date hereof, and all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such change may invalidate the contents of this section, which will not be updated to reflect such change. Where this section refers to “the Netherlands” or “Dutch” it refers only to the part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in Europe.
THIS SECTION IS INTENDED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS NOT DUTCH TAX ADVICE OR A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF ALL DUTCH TAX CONSEQUENCES RELATING TO THE ACQUISITION, HOLDING AND DISPOSAL OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES. HOLDERS OR PROSPECTIVE HOLDERS OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISERS REGARDING THE DUTCH TAX CONSEQUENCES RELATING TO THE ACQUISITION, HOLDING AND DISPOSAL OF THE ORDINARY SHARES IN LIGHT OF THEIR PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES.
Please note that this section does not describe the Dutch tax consequences for:
Dividend Withholding Tax
Dividends distributed by us generally are subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax at a rate of 15%. Generally, we are responsible for the withholding of such dividend withholding tax at source; the Dutch dividend withholding tax is for the account of the holder of our ordinary shares.
The expression “dividends distributed” includes, among other things:
Corporate legal entities that are resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch corporate income tax purposes ("Dutch Resident Entities") generally are entitled to an exemption from, or a credit for, any Dutch dividend withholding tax against their Dutch corporate income tax liability. The credit in any given year is, however, limited to the amount of Dutch corporate income tax payable in respect of the relevant year with an indefinite carry forward of any excess amount. Individuals who are resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch personal income tax purposes ("Dutch Resident Individuals") generally are entitled to a credit for any Dutch dividend withholding tax against their Dutch personal income tax liability and to a refund of any residual Dutch dividend withholding tax. The above generally also applies to holders of our ordinary
shares that are neither resident nor deemed to be resident of the Netherlands ("Non-Resident Holders") if the ordinary shares are attributable to a Dutch permanent establishment of such Non-Resident Holder.
A holder of our ordinary shares resident of a country other than the Netherlands may, depending on such holder’s specific circumstances, be entitled to exemptions from, reductions of, or full or partial refunds of, Dutch dividend withholding tax under Dutch national tax legislation, EU law, or treaties for the avoidance of double taxation in effect between the Netherlands and such other country.
According to Dutch domestic anti-dividend stripping rules, no credit against Dutch tax, exemption from, reduction, or refund of Dutch dividend withholding tax will be granted if the recipient of the dividends we paid is not considered the beneficial owner (uiteindelijk gerechtigde; as described in the Dutch Dividend Withholding Tax Act 1965) of those dividends. This legislation generally targets situations in which a shareholder retains its economic interest in shares but reduces the withholding tax costs on dividends by a transaction with another party. It is not required for these rules to apply that the recipient of the dividends is aware that a dividend stripping transaction took place. The Dutch State Secretary of Finance takes the position that the definition of beneficial ownership introduced by this legislation will also be applied in the context of a double taxation convention.
Conditional withholding tax on dividends (as of January 1, 2024)
As of January 1, 2024, a Dutch conditional withholding tax will be imposed on dividends distributed by us to entities related (gelieerd) to us (within the meaning of the Dutch Withholding Tax Act 2021; Wet bronbelasting 2021), if such related entity:
all within the meaning of the Dutch Withholding Tax Act 2021.
The Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will be imposed at the highest Dutch corporate income tax rate in effect at the time of the distribution (currently 25.8%). The Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will be reduced, but not below zero, by any regular Dutch dividend withholding tax withheld in respect of the same dividend distribution. As such, based on the currently applicable rates, the overall effective tax rate of withholding the regular Dutch dividend withholding tax (as described above) and the Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will not exceed the highest corporate income tax rate in effect at the time of the distribution (currently 25.8%).
Taxes on Income and Capital Gains
Dutch Resident Entities
Generally, if the holder of ordinary shares is a Dutch Resident Entity, any income derived or deemed to be derived from the ordinary shares or any capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the ordinary shares is subject to Dutch corporate income tax at a rate of 19% with respect to taxable profits up to €200,000 and 25.8% with respect to taxable profits in excess of that amount (rates and brackets for 2023).
Dutch Resident Individuals
If the holder of our ordinary shares is a Dutch Resident Individual, any income derived or deemed to be derived from the ordinary shares or any capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the ordinary shares is subject to Dutch personal income tax at the progressive rates (with a maximum of 49.50% in 2023), if:
Taxation of savings and investments
If the above-mentioned conditions (i) and (ii) do not apply to the Dutch Resident Individual, the ordinary shares will be subject to an annual Dutch income tax under the regime for savings and investments (inkomen uit sparen en beleggen). Taxation only occurs insofar the Dutch Resident Individual's net investment assets for the year exceed a statutory threshold (heffingvrij vermogen). The net investment assets for the year are the fair market value of the investment assets less the fair market value of the liabilities on January 1 of the relevant calendar year (reference date; peildatum). Actual income or capital gains realized in respect of the ordinary shares are as such not subject to Dutch income tax.
The Dutch Resident Individual's assets and liabilities taxed under this regime, including the ordinary shares, are allocated over the following three categories: (a) bank savings (banktegoeden), (b) other investments (overige bezittingen), including the ordinary shares, and (c) liabilities (schulden). The taxable benefit for the year (voordeel uit sparen en beleggen) is equal to the product of (x) the total deemed return divided by the sum of bank savings, other investments and liabilities and (b) the sum of bank savings, other investments and liabilities minus the statutory threshold, and is taxed at a flat rate of 32% (rate for 2023).
The deemed return applicable to other investments, including the ordinary shares, is set at 6.17% for the calendar year 2023. Transactions in the three-month period before and after 1 January of the relevant calendar year implemented to arbitrate between the deemed return percentages applicable to bank savings, other investments and liabilities will for this purpose be ignored if the holder of the ordinary shares cannot sufficiently demonstrate that such transactions are implemented for other than tax reasons.
Non-residents of the Netherlands
A holder of our ordinary shares that is neither a Dutch Resident Entity nor a Dutch Resident Individual will not be subject to Dutch income tax in respect of income derived or deemed to be derived from our ordinary shares or in respect of capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the ordinary shares, provided that:
Gift and Inheritance Taxes
Residents of the Netherlands
Gift or inheritance taxes will arise in the Netherlands with respect to a transfer of ordinary shares by way of a gift by, or on the death of, a holder of such ordinary shares who is resident or deemed resident of the Netherlands at the time of the gift or the holder’s death.
Non-residents of the Netherlands
No gift or inheritance taxes will arise in the Netherlands with respect to a transfer of our ordinary shares by way of gift by, or on the death of, a holder of our ordinary shares who is neither resident nor deemed to be resident of the Netherlands, unless:
For purposes of Dutch gift and inheritance taxes, amongst others, a person that holds the Dutch nationality will be deemed to be resident of the Netherlands if such person has been resident in the Netherlands at any time during the ten years preceding the date of the gift or such person’s death. Additionally, for purposes of Dutch gift tax, amongst others, a person not holding the Dutch nationality will be deemed to be resident of the Netherlands if such person has been resident in the Netherlands at any time during the twelve months preceding the date of the gift. Applicable tax treaties may override deemed residency.
Value Added Tax (VAT)
No Dutch value added tax will be payable by a holder of our ordinary shares in respect of any payment in consideration for the holding or disposal of our ordinary shares.
Other Taxes and Duties
No Dutch documentation taxes (commonly referred to as stamp duties) will be payable by a holder of our ordinary shares in respect of any payment in consideration for the holding or disposal of our ordinary shares.